The astrophysicists the international high energy stereoskopischen system (H.E.S.S.) co-operation report on the discovery of the fast variability very much high energy (VHE) in the gamma-rays of the enormous elliptical galaxy M 87. Querying these gamma-ray photons - with energy more than million million-mark the energy of the visible light - of one of the most famous extragalactic articles on the sky is remarkably, long-waits the many possible places of assembly of particle acceleration (and therefore gamma-ray production) within M 87 given. More surprising was much the discovery of the drastic gamma-ray river changes on synchronizing time marks of days.
These results exclude for the first time all possible elections for places of assembly of gamma-ray production, except the most exciting and most extraordinary: the next environment that supermassifs black drilling, those in the center of M 87 is (the science express, 26 October 2006).
An international crew of the astrophysicists of the H.E.S.S. co-operation announced the discovery of the short term variability in the river very much high energy (VHE) of the gamma-rays of the radio galaxy M 87. In Namibia co-operation a system established querying and to run leaves, well-known into one another-pushed as Cherenkov, which makes these gamma-rays possible, from which soil-same to be determined (notes to see). Showing this system to a close convenient galaxy, M has 87, which determines crew VHE gamma-rays over the last four years. The material surprise is however that the intensity of the emission be seen can, in order to change within some days drastically on occasion.The enormous radio galaxy M 87
This galaxy, lain 50 million Light years away in the constellation virgin, beherbirgt supermassifs a black drilling of 3 thousand million solar masses, from which a jet of the particles and the magnetic fields leaks out. However differently than for precede-observed extragalactic sources of the VHE gamma-rays - admits than Blazars - the jet to M 87 does not point, toward to the mass however of approximately 30� one sees diagonal. Believed gamma-rays in Blazars will into the jet to be radiated in order the jet direction to be adjusted and in their energy and in intensity by the relativistic movement the jet particle be loaded. Therefore M 87 represents a new kind extragalactic to source of gamma-ray.
A first announcement over VHE gamma-ray emission of M 87 was seen to 1998 with the HEGRA Cherenkov telescopes (one of the forerunner experiment too H.E.S.S.). With the H.E.S.S. results these announcements are confirmed now in the larger confidence. The river of the VHE gamma-rays of M 87 is rather weak; no other radio galaxy was seen supposed in VHE gamma-rays, up to now, because most distant as relatively close convenient M 87 is.Which short time scale variability us explains
Time scale to the variability is an announcement for the maximum size of the emission region. Since gamma-rays of the rear end of the Emissionregionspielraums cannot be than much shorter longer, until they reach us, variability time scales, require the time gamma-rays, in order to cross the emission region. Such variability mass are frequently used, around the size of the emission place of assembly in the distant articles, frequently for the larger accuracy than, by one the size of the article, which measures be based on the angular extension in the sky to limit. Few day variability time scale seen through H.E.S.S. in M 87 is extremely briefly, shorter than determined at each possible other wavelength. This explains us that the size of the region, which produces the VHE gamma-rays is fair over the size of our solar system (1013 m, only approximately 0,000001% of the size of the complete radio galaxy M 87). �This is not larger much, than the drop horizon that says black drilling in the center to supermassifs of M 87 �Matthias Beilicke, a H.E.S.S. scientist, who works on the university of Hamburg.
This observation forms the next environment of the central black drilling of M 87 most likely the place for the production of the VHE gamma-rays; other structures in the jets of M 87 bend to have larger scales. The physics of the production of processes has to be determined and completely novel units can be because of the proximity of the black drilling caused, which showed this discovery by the H.E.S.S. crew. It is probable that we employ another production unit than for the Blazars, whose jets show toward to us. In this region close of the black drilling, manufactures the affair, which by the black drilling one grows together, also the relativistic plasma beam - a process, which is not still completely understood generally. The fact that gamma-rays of this violent region can escape can look surprising, but is possible, since the black drilling is in M 87 growing together affair at a relatively reduced, compared to other black drillings. Also one cannot exclude that relativistic effects contribute like those, which take place in others extragalactic sources on any level, but accepted, the jet toward to us shows, is not improbable large relativistic effects.H.E.S.S., which leads the way
With this and preceding discoveries of extragalactic sources, carries H.E.S.S. the way, if it understands the processes, is included in, as these extraordinarily energetic photons are produced. The radio galaxy M 87 is an excellent laboratory for studying the core of these galaxies, with their super+substantial black drillings, which serve, when machines accelerate particles to the extremely high energy and gamma-rays during the process give VHE out. This article can be studied and compared with the more numerous, but more distant Blazars, in which the jet makes our opinion of the central source indistinct. For M 87, we know that we have a free opinion of the central machine with H.E.S.S., to a better understanding everything extragalactic VHE sources of gamma-ray in such a way lead now.Notes over H.E.S.S.
The high energy stereoskopische system (H.E.S.S.) crew consists of scientists of Germany, France, Great Britain, Poland, the Czech republic, Ireland, Armenia, South Africa and Namibia.
The results were reached with the high energy stereoskopischen system (H.E.S.S.) telescopes in Namibia, in the southwest Africa.This system of four 13 m diameter telescopes is at present the most sensitive detector of the gamma-rays of the very high energy. The gamma-rays are up-sucked in the atmosphere, in which they give a short-lived shower to the particle. The H.E.S.S. of telescopes determines weak, short lightnings of the bluish light, these particles radiates (called the Cherenkov light, some billionths one second lasting) and collects the light with large mirrors, which reflect themselves on extremely sensitive cameras. Each picture gives the position in the sky of an individual gamma-ray photon, and the quantity of the light collected gives the energy outputgamma-ray. Developing the picture photon by photon lets diagrams of the astronomical articles manufacture H.E.S.S., while they appear in the gamma-rays.
The H.E.S.S. telescope row represents a structure effort to multi-year by an international crew of more than 100 scientists and of engineers. The instrument was opened Theo Ben Guirab in September 2004 by the Namibian prime minister, and its first data to have already result in a number of important discoveries, including the first astronomical picture of a supernew fact shock wave at the highest gamma-ray energy.
The scientists, who are included in H.E.S.S. with, continue, improving and improving the system of the telescopes. Structure of a central telescope - a Behemoth 30m highly - is on the way, including new partner countries such as Poland. The improved system, admits crew more sensitive as H.E.S.S. - II, is and covers a larger distance of the gamma-ray energy and makes possible the H.E.S.S. to increase the gamma-ray source catalog and form new discoveries.