Thursday, January 18, 2007

Lakes seen on Titan

The scientists have found what they create are definitive evidence that the lakes of the liquid methane exist in the surface of the greatest Saturn moon, Titan. In a paper he published in the application the nature of the newspaper, of Thursday the data these scientists of the projection of image of the radar gathered during flyby of the moon by Cassini of the NASA that the spaceship demonstrated in 2006 July that the considered dark characteristics near the North Pole of the moon are explained more more good possible by them than they are lakes. The characteristics considered by constant Cassini with the characteristics that are lakes include their location in topographic depressions and levels that vary of the embankment. The results confirm preliminary burdens of data of flyby that appeared to support the existence of the lakes.

French Satellite Hunts for New Worlds

A new French satellite reached orbit Wednesday to begin a hunting of 30 months stops Earth-like worlds around distant stars. The spaceship, call COROT, assumptions, or exoplanets are first of a series of robotic ends of test hoped to advance the extrasolar planet study perceivably, particularly those that are resembled the Earth. More than 200 exoplanets has been discovered from 1995, although the majority has been giant of the gas greater than Jupiter, that orbit near their stars of the father. "If we found as soon as a planet rocky, later we can be safe that there are many of them," the scientist this Malcolm Fridlund of the project with the European Space Agency. The name of COROT is abbreviations modified for the planetary rotation of the convection and transits, that are what the spaceship will look for. Fixing their foot-long telescope to a specific area of the sky by 150 days simultaneously, COROT will be able to detect to cushion slighter of the light of a star caused by the passage of a planet through their face. COROT also will look for starquakes and other associated phenomena the internal star operations, measuring the waves of the energy that undulate through the surfaces of stars, a well-known science like asteroseismology. To study the undulation gives to scientists the penetration in the mass of a star, the age and the chemical composition. "The measures required for both (the studies) are essentially equal - the results of the high precision in how the radiation of a star changes in a certain term," it said to Ian Roxburgh of queen Maria, of the university of London and a collaborator of long term of the COROT science. The European Space Agency has been using a similar technique for the studies of the sun with the solar observatory and of Heliospheric, or SOHO. The scientists glide to at least point 50 stars for the similar studies with COROT. Whereas COROT is the first satellite to take exoplanet-hunts the orbit, it will be far from hard. This NASA of the decade more ahead glides to send an ambitious mission called Kepler to look for Earth-classified planets that they move in orbit around stars in the advisable distances so that the life becomes. Whereas COROT will also look for for rocky worlds, he will need to be near his stars of the father for the detection, a distance that would be probably inhospitable for the life. Europe also has a recordativa letter called Darwin anticipated mission. It would imply a fleet of the spaceship four or five that could take pictures Earth-like from worlds so the scientists can look for samples of the life.

Thursday, December 28, 2006

NASA adds array work to next EVA

The NASA has decided to cause that a pair of astronauts examines a solar panel balky in the ISS during his spacewalk the following last Saturday. Astronauts Bob Curbeam and Sunita Williams glide to lead third and final EVA to program of afternoon of Saturday of the mission STS-116, completion the work rewiring on the electrical system of the station who began during spacewalk Thursday. If the time allows, both they will examine a solar paddle who could not contract completely previous in the week. The efforts Friday of jiggle the P6 arsenal, including having an exercise of the vigorous astronaut within the station, failed to unstick the panel, who contracted only partially. The NASA has eliminated dedicated EVA to fix the problem due to a deficiency of the training to treat this problem; additional EVA also would avoid that they made an inspection of the heat protector of the shuttle after descolar, if comes. The solar arsenal at the moment is contracted enough to allow that another system of solar paddles rotates, but will need to be contracted completely in a certain point before the orders move to their final location in the truss of the station.

Sunday, December 17, 2006

Delta 2 launches NRO satellite

A rocket of delta 2 sent to a satellite classified for the national office of the recognition (NRO) Thursday in the first launching made under auspices of the united alliance of the launching (ULA). Delta 2 7920-10 afternoon cleared of the complex launching 2W of the space in the base of Air Force of Vandenberg in California in 4 of EST (GMT 2100), unfolding its payload in orbit near one more hour advanced. One did not provide any details on the satellite of NRO, indicated NROL-21. The launching was the first one since the ULA began operations at the beginning of the month officially. The ULS combined the operations of the launching of the government of Boeing and Lockheed Martin, and includes the delta both 2 as well as rockets of EELV societies.

Sunday, December 03, 2006

Deodorant from Monkey Smells Sweet

What can be the most natural Colony of the world was discovered recently in a Mexican forest. The ingredients? Spit of the chewed monkey and upon the leaves.
According to a paper in the application of this month primates of the newspaper, the masculine Mexican monkeys of the spider chew the leaves of three aromatic plants: the tree of the pea of Alamos, that has fragant leaves and flowers, a flourishing tree of the trompeta, and wild celery. The ritual, that typically takes anywhere to divide 30 seconds for two minutes, was judged monkey �self-anointing� by Matthias Laska, professor of zoology in the university of Linkoping in Sweden. Laska and its colleagues observed the behavior 20 times in two masculine monkeys of the spider that were part of a group free-ranging extended in the Silvestra fauna of Park of tropical Flora and in Veracruz, Mexico. The investigators determined the monkeys always applied as soon as a species of the plant simultaneously. The use was routine, not unlike of a man who regularly spritzes in the desodorisante or Colony. �In most of cases, the arm that did not maintain the material of the scent-bearing was carried out overflow or grasped a branch on the animal,� Laska and his team wrote.
Whereas this one is the first one disclosed the case of such behavior in wild Mexican monkeys of the spider, the similar routines have been stained between the masculine and feminine monkeys of capuchin, the monkeys of the owl, other monkeys of the spider and lemurs. In most of these cases, the scientists speculated that pure of the leaf mash could have been used to attenuate topical infections of the skin or to reject insects. Laska and his team, nevertheless, found that of the plants used by the Mexican monkeys of the spider, only the wild celery is known to have insect-repelling of compound and of characteristic anti-fungal properties. The other of the plants simply good scent. The scientists, therefore, concluded that one same-to grease �can play a role in the context of the social communication, to indicate of the social state or possibly to increase the attraction sexual.� That is to say, the monkeys could make it for he himself basic use Colony of the people of the reasons. Whereas chemistry behind this continues being a mystery, the scents can mimic those of the fragant, natural steroids of primate, that are presumed to act like pheromones sex-that they stimulate.
Laska lead a previous study that found the spider that the monkeys particularly are equipped in smelling outside towards such scents. But all the monkeys do not wish to smell like the flowers and the celery.
Mary Baker, junior instructor of the anthropology in the university of Rhode Island, monkeys observed of capuchin that apply to the citric fruit and pures of the leaf of the tobacco to their bodies. Christina Campbell, scientist in the institute of Cotsen of the Archaeology in the university of California in Los Angeles, observed he himself behavior in monkeys black-given of the spider in Panama. Campbell said the news of the discovery that �I agree generally with (the new ones) results,� but she has still not eliminated other possible reasons of the scent rubbing. �I think that the behavior can be a certain class that indicates, although they do not convince to me,� of her said. �Also I ask myself if it can work to stimulate or to clean the gland that rubs the mixture of the mixture plant.� The future studies of the hopes of Laska will solve such questions on the fragant ritual.

Sunday, November 19, 2006

Whale vocab richer than thought

It cannot be language as we know it, but the whales do not have any shortage of ways to be done understood. So ample it is his vocal repertoire, in fact, that the whales can call to their young people, it courts potential companions and it even express emotions, according to the investigators who have identified 622 social sounds in whales of humpback. Its work will be presented/displayed in the next joint meetings of the acoustic society of America (HANDLE) and of the acoustic society of Japan in Hawaii. The social sounds are written, unpatterned the sounds that are different from songs more very long, complex of the whale. The new investigation adds to a body every greater time of the evidence than the whales transport more meaning with vocalizations than it thought previously. "It would not say (the whales have) language, as that is a human term," the news this Dunlop of the discovery of Rebecca. Dunlop, that worked in the study, is investigator in the school of veterinary sciences in the university of Queensland, Australia. The "whales do not chain these together sounds as words and orations of the form. It is rather a simple vocabulary," she said. The scientists visually followed 60 cases of the whales that emigrated throughout the coast of the east of Australia. The investigators used an arsenal of static hydrophone - sensible equipment that detects acoustic waves - to bind to the sounds of the whale to the several activities and contexts. They identified 622 different sounds, that fell in 35 basic types. These include "wops" done by the females, "thwops" done by the men, the "barks" made when the cases start off, and the shouts acute that appeared to express rage. In addition to vocalizations, the investigators found that the whales send messages with body language - practicing an opening the surface, giving a pat to the water with their tails and blowing subaqueous bubbles. Famous by your long, complex songs, whales also "to speak sometimes" the short units of the song individually instead of singing them. The men specially look like to make this when trying court a female. The "song is a noisy signal of the diffusion and two singers who sing at the same time are limited to be confused the receiver," Dunlop speculated. "If he is trying to attract a female, but it does not wish its signal confused with another singer in the area, then to use units of the song in this case could be the way advanced." She thinks that they are the whales of a reason so vocal she is because the sound travels better in water than light, and so the Vista is less useful to the whales that the hearing. Christopher Clark, director of the research program of Bioacoustics in the university of Cornell, lead a similar study in right whales. It needed the irony that hardly as the investigators are gaining a better understanding of vocalizations of the whale, the human beings is creating as much noise of the ocean - with the shipment, exploration of the oil and the gas, recreacional traffic and more than we often avoided that the whales communicate. "Many whales have very traditional arguments of feeding and his migratory routes to happen throughout the low lines of the coast, that now are something of noisiest, the possible habitat more heavy affected," he said. "The excess of the area of the ocean that a whale can communicate and listen today has shriveled to a small fraction down of which it was less than a century ago."

Tuesday, November 07, 2006

GPS-Endowed pigeons enlist to you like Bloggers pollution

If the pigeons wrote their own ones blogs, could speak about where to notice the bread crumb or to find the points roosting main.
Hour, for means of fagotti high technology many small, the pigeons really have become bloggers-but they are messages of shipment approximately the smog of California.
In a plan known like PigeonBlog, the sensors in the fagotti collect the data on toxic gases, which the carbon monoxide and dioxide of nitrogen, poich� the birds traversano through skies of the city.
The information then are transmitted of new to a calculating center them, that it automatically sendes a program of the concentration of the polluting substances on the Internet.
Avian Reporters
Beatriz da Costa, a university professor of the limbs, the calculation and engineering to the university of California, Irvine, dreammed on the idea.
One of the inspirations for the plan was muovendo towards California and "seeing the smog in L.A., "it has said. "It is enough defective outside here."
"Around at the same time camera around to the relative neck has worked through one photo of one hundred years of a pigeon with one.
"The pigeons were annull one of ours first� arrange of delivery, "Coast of from saying.
It has decided to modernize this idea for ventunesimo the century and "to use the pigeons as journalists in order to signal on a situation put into effect them."

Sunday, October 29, 2006

Discovery of the gamma-rays of the edge of a black drilling



The astrophysicists the international high energy stereoskopischen system (H.E.S.S.) co-operation report on the discovery of the fast variability very much high energy (VHE) in the gamma-rays of the enormous elliptical galaxy M 87. Querying these gamma-ray photons - with energy more than million million-mark the energy of the visible light - of one of the most famous extragalactic articles on the sky is remarkably, long-waits the many possible places of assembly of particle acceleration (and therefore gamma-ray production) within M 87 given. More surprising was much the discovery of the drastic gamma-ray river changes on synchronizing time marks of days.

These results exclude for the first time all possible elections for places of assembly of gamma-ray production, except the most exciting and most extraordinary: the next environment that supermassifs black drilling, those in the center of M 87 is (the science express, 26 October 2006).

An international crew of the astrophysicists of the H.E.S.S. co-operation announced the discovery of the short term variability in the river very much high energy (VHE) of the gamma-rays of the radio galaxy M 87. In Namibia co-operation a system established querying and to run leaves, well-known into one another-pushed as Cherenkov, which makes these gamma-rays possible, from which soil-same to be determined (notes to see). Showing this system to a close convenient galaxy, M has 87, which determines crew VHE gamma-rays over the last four years. The material surprise is however that the intensity of the emission be seen can, in order to change within some days drastically on occasion.

The enormous radio galaxy M 87
This galaxy, lain 50 million Light years away in the constellation virgin, beherbirgt supermassifs a black drilling of 3 thousand million solar masses, from which a jet of the particles and the magnetic fields leaks out. However differently than for precede-observed extragalactic sources of the VHE gamma-rays - admits than Blazars - the jet to M 87 does not point, toward to the mass however of approximately 30� one sees diagonal. Believed gamma-rays in Blazars will into the jet to be radiated in order the jet direction to be adjusted and in their energy and in intensity by the relativistic movement the jet particle be loaded. Therefore M 87 represents a new kind extragalactic to source of gamma-ray.

A first announcement over VHE gamma-ray emission of M 87 was seen to 1998 with the HEGRA Cherenkov telescopes (one of the forerunner experiment too H.E.S.S.). With the H.E.S.S. results these announcements are confirmed now in the larger confidence. The river of the VHE gamma-rays of M 87 is rather weak; no other radio galaxy was seen supposed in VHE gamma-rays, up to now, because most distant as relatively close convenient M 87 is.

Which short time scale variability us explains
Time scale to the variability is an announcement for the maximum size of the emission region. Since gamma-rays of the rear end of the Emissionregionspielraums cannot be than much shorter longer, until they reach us, variability time scales, require the time gamma-rays, in order to cross the emission region. Such variability mass are frequently used, around the size of the emission place of assembly in the distant articles, frequently for the larger accuracy than, by one the size of the article, which measures be based on the angular extension in the sky to limit. Few day variability time scale seen through H.E.S.S. in M 87 is extremely briefly, shorter than determined at each possible other wavelength. This explains us that the size of the region, which produces the VHE gamma-rays is fair over the size of our solar system (1013 m, only approximately 0,000001% of the size of the complete radio galaxy M 87). �This is not larger much, than the drop horizon that says black drilling in the center to supermassifs of M 87 �Matthias Beilicke, a H.E.S.S. scientist, who works on the university of Hamburg.

This observation forms the next environment of the central black drilling of M 87 most likely the place for the production of the VHE gamma-rays; other structures in the jets of M 87 bend to have larger scales. The physics of the production of processes has to be determined and completely novel units can be because of the proximity of the black drilling caused, which showed this discovery by the H.E.S.S. crew. It is probable that we employ another production unit than for the Blazars, whose jets show toward to us. In this region close of the black drilling, manufactures the affair, which by the black drilling one grows together, also the relativistic plasma beam - a process, which is not still completely understood generally. The fact that gamma-rays of this violent region can escape can look surprising, but is possible, since the black drilling is in M 87 growing together affair at a relatively reduced, compared to other black drillings. Also one cannot exclude that relativistic effects contribute like those, which take place in others extragalactic sources on any level, but accepted, the jet toward to us shows, is not improbable large relativistic effects.

H.E.S.S., which leads the way
With this and preceding discoveries of extragalactic sources, carries H.E.S.S. the way, if it understands the processes, is included in, as these extraordinarily energetic photons are produced. The radio galaxy M 87 is an excellent laboratory for studying the core of these galaxies, with their super+substantial black drillings, which serve, when machines accelerate particles to the extremely high energy and gamma-rays during the process give VHE out. This article can be studied and compared with the more numerous, but more distant Blazars, in which the jet makes our opinion of the central source indistinct. For M 87, we know that we have a free opinion of the central machine with H.E.S.S., to a better understanding everything extragalactic VHE sources of gamma-ray in such a way lead now.

Notes over H.E.S.S.
The high energy stereoskopische system (H.E.S.S.) crew consists of scientists of Germany, France, Great Britain, Poland, the Czech republic, Ireland, Armenia, South Africa and Namibia.

The results were reached with the high energy stereoskopischen system (H.E.S.S.) telescopes in Namibia, in the southwest Africa.This system of four 13 m diameter telescopes is at present the most sensitive detector of the gamma-rays of the very high energy. The gamma-rays are up-sucked in the atmosphere, in which they give a short-lived shower to the particle. The H.E.S.S. of telescopes determines weak, short lightnings of the bluish light, these particles radiates (called the Cherenkov light, some billionths one second lasting) and collects the light with large mirrors, which reflect themselves on extremely sensitive cameras. Each picture gives the position in the sky of an individual gamma-ray photon, and the quantity of the light collected gives the energy outputgamma-ray. Developing the picture photon by photon lets diagrams of the astronomical articles manufacture H.E.S.S., while they appear in the gamma-rays.

The H.E.S.S. telescope row represents a structure effort to multi-year by an international crew of more than 100 scientists and of engineers. The instrument was opened Theo Ben Guirab in September 2004 by the Namibian prime minister, and its first data to have already result in a number of important discoveries, including the first astronomical picture of a supernew fact shock wave at the highest gamma-ray energy.

The scientists, who are included in H.E.S.S. with, continue, improving and improving the system of the telescopes. Structure of a central telescope - a Behemoth 30m highly - is on the way, including new partner countries such as Poland. The improved system, admits crew more sensitive as H.E.S.S. - II, is and covers a larger distance of the gamma-ray energy and makes possible the H.E.S.S. to increase the gamma-ray source catalog and form new discoveries.